[Solved] Look carefully at the two sheets of glucose molecules. Are they identical? Describe any differences that you notice. The first page

Look carefully at the two sheets of glucose molecules. Are they identical? Describe any differences that you notice.

The first page contains α-glucose molecules. Each glucose represents a monosaccharide. Cut out one glucose monosaccharide and paste it onto your sheet of paper. Label it α-glucose (alpha) and number the carbons (from 1 to 6). Numbering moves clockwise, beginning with the carbon next to the oxygen in the ring. What is the molecular formula for α-glucose?
Cut out two more glucose molecules and place them side by side on your table. Use scissors to remove a water molecule from the functional groups on carbon #1 of one glucose and carbon #4 of the other. What is the name of the two functional groups from which the water molecule was removed? What is the name of the biochemical reaction which results in the loss of water from a molecule? What else can this reaction be called?
Slide the two glucose molecules together. Where will a new bond be formed? Why? What is the name of this new bond? This linkage is called an α-1,4 linkage. Why do you think the linkage has this name?
Paste this new molecule onto your sheet of paper. Draw in the bond linking the two glucose molecules together. Paste the water molecule you removed below this bond and draw a circle around it. This molecule is no longer a monosaccharide; what is it? What is the chemical name of the molecule you have just synthesized?
Repeat step 3 only this time synthesize a polysaccharide 4-5 monomers long. The polysaccharide you have made is a short section of starch or amylose which is the storage form of glucose in many plants. Tape this new molecule to your paper in the same way you did above and label it.
Glycogen is also made up of glucose but it has a different shape. Glycogen contains α-1,4 linkages and α-1,6 linkages. Look at the glucose molecules you were given. What is the significance of the α-1,6 linkages in glycogen (how does it make this molecule different from amylose)? Where is glycogen found?
Find the sheet containing β-glucose molecules, the second page. Cut and paste one of these glucose molecules to your paper. Label this glucose molecule β-glucose (beta) and write down its molecular formula. Number the carbons in the same way as the α-glucose molecules. Are these glucose molecules monosaccharides? Why/why not? How does this compare to the molecular formula for α-glucose?
Using β-glucose molecules, synthesize a polysaccharide 4-5 monomers long. The linkages are all β-1,4 linkages. Why do you think the linkage has this designation? Does this biochemical reaction have the same name as the α-1,4 linkage in step 4? Why/why not? Tape this molecule to your notes and label it.
The polysaccharide you synthesized in step 9 is a short section of cellulose. Where is cellulose found? Compare the shape of cellulose with the shape of amylose. Are they the same or different? Humans break down amylose and use it as a major source of energy. Is the same true for cellulose? Why/why not?
Amylose, cellulose and glycogen are all made up of glucose molecules. Summarize the differences between these molecules (function, monomer, shape, linkage, etc.).

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